Urinary tract infections happen when bacteria get into the urethra and travel up into the bladder. If the infection stays just in the bladder, it is a called a bladder infection, or "cystitis." If the infection travels up past the bladder and into the kidneys, it is called a kidney infection or " pyelonephritis."

Bladder infections are one of the most common infections, causing symptoms of burning with urination and needing to urinate frequently. Kidney infections are less common than bladder infections, and they can cause similar symptoms, but the can also cause fever, back pain, and nausea or vomiting.

Management of patients with recurrent urinary tract infections and also identify the risk factors which has led to UTI (e.g. structural kidney problems like vesicoureteric reflux, posterior urethral valve etc, bladder dysfunction, stones). If not recognized and treated early it may lead to renal deterioration on long term.